Transportation In Ancient Rome

The first and most simple vehicle found in Rome, was the plaustrum. It was little more than a flat board carried by four wheels. The wheels were fixed to the axle in a stiff manner and the axle itself was also fabricated tightly to the cart. This made steering of the wagon a cumbersome business and meant a very low efficiency. These problems and the fact that no supple wagon had been invented to bind the animals in the front-only the Celts had invented a balanced harness to pull with-made freight over land costly and time-consuming.

The most impressive skill in Roman transportation was the so-called cursus publicus (something like ‘public race course’). This postal service was started by state couriers bringing information and diplomatic instructions into the far reaches of the empire. This developed relatively quickly into the organization of postal diligences that connected the various provinces with each other. These were not really public postal services as they were meant for people employed by the emperor and for the rich and powerful.

The cursus publicus was strictly regulated as far as size and capacity of its vehicles was concerned. Also it was precisely specified who was allowed to drive them, for what purpose and who was responsible for their maintenance. Because of the high cost of constructing and maintaining roads, transportation was managed in accordance with tight stipulations and great care was taken that a relative light maximum weight was allowed for the different modes of transport.

When the Roman empire lost its vitality, the cursus publicus became victim of nepotism and misuse. With the demise of Roman central power the excellent qualities of the system disappeared. Only in modern times the cursus publicus would be matched.

In general transportation was carried out by ancient customs. Sail boats were given a smooth skin, instead of riveting, and a fully developed keel with front and stern. The ancient Greeks used a square or oblong sail to catch the wind and in case of headwind they employed one or two rows of oarsmen to make headway. The Greeks were the first, as far as we know, to construct a special kind of battle ship with a ram at the front. Also they had freight ships without rowers and these, of course, were totally dependent on the wind. These developments were completed in the time of classical Greece. The Romans adopted both these forms without making any changes.

The Romans devoted much more attention to their roads than to transportation by sea. They worked out a remarkable network with carefully planned roads, both as far as the position as the construction were concerned. The road network was stretched out far and wide throughout all the provinces of the empire. Over these roads the legions marched to wherever there was a crisis. The roads also served for the development of trade, but their primary function always remained the maintenance of the imperial dominion.

At the zenith of Roman power trade was connected over land to the cultures of Europe, North Africa, Asia Minor and even China and India. But the system of transportation depended on the Roman, Chinese and Mauritanian empires. When these great powers collapsed, the trade routes became ways of invasion for foreign hostile armies. Almost everywhere the road networks became dilapidated for centuries. Freight transport was substituted by troupes of beasts of burden that were able to travel those ancient roads and that were sufficient to carry the lesser stream of goods. It would last till the twelfth century before the situation was improved.

How to Lease a Car and Get the Best Deal

If you can’t afford to pay a huge sum to buy a new car, you have another option: you can pay a lot less and lease a car. How do you go about leasing a car? Well, all you have to do is make a small sum as down payment and then make monthly payments throughout the term of the lease. You will give the car back when the term comes to an end. Read on to know the tips that will help you lease the right car.

The Type of Car

First of all, you should decide on the car you need. Do you want a sedan, an SUV or a convertible car? This is an important consideration.

Choose the Right Model

You should create a list of cars that fall in your price range. In order to cut down on non-lease costs, you can go for models with high level of reliability, good gas mileage and safety features, just to name a few.

Go for a Test Drive

As soon as you have listed a few models, you should go on a test drive in each car. Make sure you consider the visibility, comfort, steering, breaking, shock absorption and the internal noise of the car.

Consider the Safety

While on the test drive, you should ask the salesperson about the ESC, ABS and other security features. Remember: safety should be your top priority.

Compare Different Lease Deals

Once you have got all the details from the dealer, you should compare the deals and decide on how much you will be paying each month.

Negotiate the Price First

Before you go back to the dealer to make a deal, you should negotiate the purchase price. Once you have negotiated the price, you should go ahead and let him know that you want to lease the car. This is important because your monthly payments will be based on the price of the car.

Negotiate the Price

You should negotiate the price of the car. If you want to know the prices of new cars, you can go to Consumer Reports. The price of the car will be between the suggested retail price of the manufacturer and the wholesale price of the dealer.

Avoid The Gab

Remember: your salesperson may push you to close the deal based on the low amount that you will be paying each month. However, this will increase the total amount that will be paid throughout the term.

The Lease Payment

If you make a bigger down payment, your monthly payments will be lower. Failing to make each payment on time will result in penalties. Therefore, you should keep this point in mind. In the same way, if you give the car back before the end of the term, you will still face a penalty.

So, if you are going to lease a car instead of buying, we suggest that you consider these 9 tips. This way you can get the best deal. Hopefully, you will find these car leasing tips helpful.

What You Need to Know About Novated Leasing

A novated lease is one of the most cost-effective and easiest ways to lease a new car, and it isn’t necessary to be earning a high, executive salary. It is a three-way agreement between a financier, employee and employer. Here is an overview of this type of lease package:

How does it work?

The novated lease agreement is likely to run for a period of two, three or five years. Once the term of the lease has expired, it is possible to upgrade the lease for a newer model or if preferred pay a buyout fee to take full ownership of the vehicle.

This type of lease package has a variety of benefits and is different to a typical car loan. The novated lease is paid using your pre-tax salary, which means your money has the potential to go further and is helpful for lowering a person’s taxable income. On the other hand, the regular loan makes use of your post-tax salary.

The actual process for the employee is relatively straightforward. Most companies have set up a system to let employees enter in a preferred lease term, type of car, and present salary to give a clear indication of the options available to them.

What are the benefits?

Tax effective – a major benefit of the novated lease is that it is so effective and you get to pay for the car and running costs using pre-tax income.

Increased buying power – the ability to lease through a fleet company is certain to give greater choice in the type of car you can drive. The discount opportunities of using a fleet provider are that much more competitive compared to what you may get if you walked into a dealership on your own.

Easily upgrade your car – a further great positive is the ability to change the vehicle once the lease expires. This type of flexibility is great for those drivers that always want to be driving the latest models.

Servicing requirements – this type of arrangement is also useful for managing all your servicing requirements. The cost of maintaining the vehicle is often included as part of the lease package.

Are there any risks

In addition to many different benefits, there are also a few potential pitfalls that are worth considering. For instance, it is essential to have job security to make sure this type of lease is kept in place. Also, in recent years, the tax benefits of a novated lease have slowly started to wind back.

Steps To Follow When Leasing A Fleet

If you have business needs, you can buy a fleet of vehicles. Based on the number of cars you need, you can also lease a fleet. If you have no idea how to go about leasing a fleet, you can follow the easy steps that we have described below.

Head to the website of the manufacturer

First of all, you should go to the website of the manufacturer to check out different types of cars and their prices. Based on your needs, you can go for cars that are fuel-efficient or luxurious. In order to get a pretty good idea of what you should go for, you can build the vehicles in a virtual environment. This way you can get a better idea of the prices and the features of the vehicles. By comparing various models, you can get the right one.

Contact the manufacturer

You should get in touch with the manufacturer in order to know more about the fleet leasing. The manufacturer may refer you to a local dealer. However, what you need to do is ask him important questions in order to prepare yourself to meet the dealer. Once you have asked the important questions, you should contact the dealer for an appointment. Next, you should meet the sales or fleet manager.

Talk about your term options

When meeting the sales manager, you should talk about your term and mileage options. Make sure the mileage options will satisfy your business needs since most fleet leases are subject to high penalty fees. You should look around if the dealer doesn’t satisfy your lease needs.

Talk about discount

Before talking about discount, you should let the manager know the number of vehicles you need. Based on this, the dealer may give you a handsome discount. Aside from this, you should talk about vehicle options and get the estimated cost to ensure that the cost will not be a burden on your budget.

Fill in the credit application

Before you place the order, make sure you fill in the credit application for approval. In the forum, you will have to write your business name, income details, tax identification number and the Society Security number. Moreover, your dealer may ask for the copies of your driver’s license and business license.

Shipping options

Once you have placed your order, you should talk about the shipping options. Your next step should be to get a timeframe for the delivery of the order and plan accordingly. You will get the vehicle identification numbers from the dealer.

Lease contracts

Once you have signed your lease contracts, you should wait for the vehicles to be delivered. Next, you should register the vehicles in your insurance policy and give the proof to the dealer. Make sure the vehicles get delivered to you free of charge.

Vehicle registrations

Ask the dealer to give you vehicle registrations and license plates. If you decide to collect them from the dealer, the dealer will install the plates on each of the vehicles. In another case, you will have to get the plates and install them on the vehicles on your own.